Hydrogen is not a very popular option for the heating and cooling of residential buildings nowadays. In fact, there are only a handful of projects around the world that are considering the possibility of using hydrogen as a heat source in public and private buildings. Hydrogen can be burned in co-generations or used in fuel cells where it reacts with oxygen and generates electricity and heat. Moreover, the hydrogen can be mixed with natural gas in the existing transmission grid, with some limitations. There are several initiatives in European countries that support the replacement of gas boilers with small stationary fuel cells.
In many public buildings, the stationary fuel cells or the hydrogen-powered co-generators have a great potential to replace the currently used diesel generators as a backup power source. However, there are still barriers related to the cost, technological readiness, and policy design that constrain the residential hydrogen projects to localized operations.